Transcending the Boundaries of Human History
Footprints of the Ancients
Is modern evolutionary theory a myth? Can discoveries by professional and amateur archaeologists disprove modern evolutionary theory and how? Hominid fossils and fossil demarcations of past geologic ages have been found all over the world that could revolutionize modern humans' evolutionary theory. Such finds should invite reconsideration of theories that relate to the history of human development.
William J. Meister, an American who was an avid amateur fossil collector, found on June 1, 1968 in Antelope Springs, about 43 miles northwest of Delta, Utah, in a fossil rich site, a large piece of rock with a human footprint, apparently wearing a sandal. The sandal measured 10 inches (or approximately 26 cm) in length, with the sole showing a width of 3 inches (or 8.9 cm) and the heel a width of 3 inches (or 7.6 cm). The heel appeared to be approximately 1/8 of an inch thick (or 1.7 cm). Amazingly, he also found trilobites right in the footprint. Please note that trilobites were small marine creatures that existed between 260 and 600 million years ago, which is an indication that this discovery was of value with respect to the prehistoric origins of human life. This finding might disprove the evolutionary theory as propagated today. Comparing this find with today’s footwear we can conceptualize a certain degree of advanced civilization. Shouldn’t modern historians then reconsider the theory of evolution as currently propagated? Don’t such findings suggest a different path of human development?
The ancient footprints stepping on trilobites Picture of the enlarged section with trilobites on it
To tell the truth, certain doubts with respect to human evolution had come to mind as early as the 19th century. The “US Science Journal,” reports in Volume 5 that numerous beautifully preserved fossil footprints were discovered on the bank of the Mississippi River, south of St. Louis, in a limestone rich area, by a French explorer. The explorer reported that surprisingly, each footprint showed the muscle curves of the human sole. Additional discoveries are discussed in Volume 7 (pages 364-367, 1885) of the “US Journal of Ancient Culture Relic Research.” On the same side of the Mississippi River a deep impression of two feet in length and one foot in depth, possibly made by a reel or a paper scroll, was also found. All of these findings were dated by radioactive decay techniques (subsequent to 1885[?]-Ed) to approximately 345 million years. Such anthropological findings advocate earnestly that human life is much older than suggested by present day evolutionary theory. Besides, such discoveries suggest that human civilizations similar to - or more advanced than - today’s societies existed already more than 100 million years ago.
Other startling archaeological finds have been reported in America. An amateur geologist found in 1927, in the Triassic limestone of Nevada’s Fisher Canyon, a fossil shoe print that, surprisingly, also contained a complete broken-off heel. The carbon-dated age is approximately 225 million years. Unexpectedly, when the relic was recently reexamined under microscopic photography, it was discovered that the leather on the heel was sewn together with two rows of crewel, exactly one-third of an inch apart. Such a shoe-making technique did not exist in 1927. Samuel Hubbar, honorary director of the Museum of Archaeology in Oakland, California, stated in an opinion on the find that “Today’s people (1927) on the earth are not yet able to make this kind of shoe. Facing this kind of evidence indicates that at the time of suspected uncivilized arthropods, millions of years ago, people with high intelligence appear to have existed ……”
A noted Chinese fossil expert, Haitao, also found a fossil looking like a human shoe footprint at Hongshan, Xinjiang, China. This find was dated back about 270 million years. The shoe appeared to have been approximately 26 cm long, wider at the toes and narrower at the heel. A double-sewn stitch impression can be seen also. The left side of the shoe print is clearer than the right side, and the depth of the print appears to be shallow in the middle and deeper on the two ends, giving the impression of a left shoeprint. As this shoe print is comparable to the one found at the Fisher Canyon in US, it was called “Opatz myth” of Xinjiang (suggesting that the artifact does not conform to the stratum period). Haitao’s hypotheses, expounded in the “Journal of Geographic Science” that the “Opatz” phenomenon implies transmigration during that period of time.
In a Cretaceous limestone formation (approximately 120 million years old) near Glen Rose, Texas, in the bed of the Paluxy River (during the dry season), named the Burdick Track, a remarkable number of human tracks, next to, on top of, or under dinosaur tracks, have been found. Many of the human footprints appear to be those of giant adults and children. The human footprints are between 15 inches (or 38.1 cm) and 21 inches (or 54.6 cm) long. This length suggests (the anthropological rule of thumb holds that the length of the foot represents about 15% of an individual’s height) the people were a height of between 8.3 feet (or 25.38 dm) and 11.8 feet (or 25.38 dm). The human prints were found between a trail of large three-toed carnivorous dinosaurs and a number of tracks of gigantic herbivorous sauropods (dinosaurs with long necks and tails, small heads and five-toed limbs). Scientific evidence of the authenticity of these findings includes “mud push-up” tracks. A “mud push-up” occurs when the toes pushed up the mud in front and on the sides, an indication that these are not erosion markings. Lamination markings are also seen as an indication that the foot pressed through different colored clays beneath it. The formation is in a limestone alternating with clay, marl and sand in various shades of brownish yellow and gray. Preservation of such tracks in limestone provides conclusive proof of rapid formation. Apparently, as soon as the tracks were made a layer of clay, sand and gravel washed in and filled them so they would not dissolve. It appears to have been a time of geological catastrophe on an enormous scale.
Further supporting the genuineness of these findings, the same site, at the same stratum, yielded fossils of human fingers and a man-made hammer with a section of the handle still firmly affixed to the hammerhead. The hammerhead was made of 96.6% iron, 0.74% sulfur and 2.6% chlorine. This is an extremely unique alloy that cannot be replicated even at this time. The wood handle has turned already into coal, which requires considerable pressure and heat. We note that if the hammer were dropped into a gap between rocks, the “coalification” (carbonization) process would not have occurred, given that there would have been no low pressure and high temperature between the rocks. Such findings suggest strongly that humanoids and dinosaurs coexisted during the same period of time.
Footprints of a dinosaur living in the Cretaceous period found in riverbed interleaved with a human footprint!
Given comprehensive research on these and other archeological findings, one might ponder deeply on the implications of these findings on the present day view of human evolution. We certainly should ask ourselves as to why these findings contradict what we have been taught since childhood. Haven’t our textbooks taught us that the earliest humans appeared around 30 thousand years ago and that man had evolved from an ancestor in common with the apes? How can we explain anthropological findings such as fossil footprints and metal tools, carbon dated from several hundred of millions of years ago, in light of a human history of only several thousand years? What are the consequences for today’s textbooks?
This kind of questioning should be considered healthy and open the window for further consideration. The window of opportunity to revisit present day human evolutionary theory has opened widely. Yet, today’s paleobiologists are reluctant to challenge the human evolutionary theory, not only because of opposing interpretations of these findings but also because of long-held belief in the present-day human evolutionary theory. Do they fear to be ridiculed? Is it a fear that a controversy may open too many other possibilities? Is it the fear of changes to life as we know it today? Would society as we know it today collapse? Is it the fear of the unknown? What would happen to the world as we know it, with its theory of evolution, and what would be the effect on modern science and human development? Human notions and behavior patterns have evolved for centuries and are fully ingrained in all of society, giving little leeway to the scientist who wishes to challenge them. Today’s scientist’s mind is almost closed in its fear to challenge established theories and societal norms. There are also too many scientists who disregard the paleobiological discoveries, while calling them willful misrepresentation or outright fabrication.
Containment of Facts
Antagonism by Mainstream Scientists
A conspiracy of silence has existed for a long time. During 1880, J.D. Whitney, a geologist from California, published a study on his findings of ancient manmade tools in a California gold mine, of artifacts such as spearheads, stone bowls and pestles he recently discovered. These artifacts found in a rock stratum, beneath untouched deposits of lava. Geologists suggest the age to be between nine million to more than 55 million years. One of Mr. Whitney’s most forceful challengers, W.H. Holmes of the Smithsonian Institution and a distinguished 19-century columnist of “California Discoveries,” wrote: “Perhaps if Professor Whitney had fully appreciated the story of human evolution as it is understood today, he would have hesitated to announce that there had been a pre-historic existence of man in North America, notwithstanding the imposing array of testimony with which he was confronted.” We can only assume that Mr. Holmes suggested that such findings should not be made public. The popular belief among archaeologists, which has then and exists today, is that anything that would challenge generally accepted theories must be “swept under the table,” as the mainstream scientist would neither accept nor acknowledge them. Basically, the scientific community, although propagating modern thought, could not envision the far-reaching changes these findings would bring with respect to existing theories. Thus, the public has been kept in the dark.
Holmes’ stance echoed the general attitude with respect to the pursuit for truth among scientists at that time and today. Resisting challenges to generally accepted theories, promulgation of revolutionary concepts, or disputing the accepted norm was and still is deeply ingrained in the scientific community and very few are willing and ready to break the mold. It is clearly easier to call findings hoaxes and discredit its discoverers, then to challenge existing assumptions. Unfortunately, although one cannot fathom the motive, the suppression of the findings encouraged those with devious minds to perpetrate scientific fraud on the unsuspecting scientific community. Especially in the late 1800s, scientific tools, such as chemical tests and dating techniques, were not as readily available as today, thus a hoax would require painstaking research to prove without a doubt.
One of the most infamous paleobiological hoaxes, the Piltdown man, was perpetrated in 1912, although it took four decades to expose it. Although one can only speculate on the reasons for such a hoax, Dr. J.S. Weiner, a participant in the Wenner-Gren Foundation international congress of paleontologists in 1953, where the hoax was exposed, later shared his thoughts: “We felt a vigorous and anxious driving force behind the fraud of the Piltdown man, a fanatic yearning for the missing evidence absolutely required to validate Darwin’s theory of evolution.” Reasons purported by Richard Harter as why the fraud was so successful include: “The team finding the fragments had excellent credentials, skill of the forgery, relatively primitive analytical tools available at that time and because if fit well with the purported theories of that time.” Charles Dawson, Sir Arthur Smith Woodward of the British Museum, Pierre Teilhardde Chardin, Sir Arthur Keith of the Hunterian Museum of the Royal Surgery Medical Committee, William Sollas of the School of Geology of Cambridge University and Eliot Smith an anatomist were suggested as possible perpetrators of the fraud as all were directly or indirectly linked to the discoveries. In fact, only a handful of people suggested at that time that the find was a hoax, as it could not be proven without a doubt until the 1950’s when the fluorine absorption test became available. As the story goes, an amateur collector, Charles Dawson, and others allegedly discovered two skulls, a canine tooth and a tool carved from an elephant tusk between 1912 and 1915 in the Piltdown quarry in Sussex, England. The skulls, resembling that of an ape, were purported to be that of an ancestor of man, the so-called missing link, i.e., an evolving hominid of the early Pleistocene or late Holocene epoch.
Ramifications for Candid Anthropologists
The so-called conspiracy of silence in the anthropological community caused those who report the truth to be maligned, ridiculed, lose their livelihoods and be ostracized. The anthropological community can not and could not publicize any evidence that anatomically modern humans may have existed prior to our civilization. For example, as a result of publicizing findings inconsistent with existing evolutionary theory, Thomas E. Lee, for publicizing the truth, and the Director of the National Museum of Canada, for not firing him, were fired from their Canadian Civil Service positions and could not find further employment. Mr. Lee had found highly developed stone tools in glacier sediments at Sheguiandah, on Manitoulin Island on Lake Huron. Geologist John Sanford of Wayne State University suggested the tools’ ages to be between 65,000 and 125,000 years. Sanford argued, ”For those adhering to standard views on North American prehistory, such ages were unacceptable.” It was not surprising that Mr. Lee let it be known that “tons of artifacts vanished into storage bins of the National Museum of Canada; official positions of prestige and power were exercised in an effort to gain control over just six Sheguiandah specimens that had not gone under cover.” Mr. Lee suggested freely that the truth “would have forced embarrassing admissions. It would have forced the rewriting of almost every book in the business. It had to be killed. It was killed.”1
A TV Program that Caused Passionate Criticism
In 1996, NBC aired a one-hour prime-time special, The Mysterious Origins of Man. It cited a number of anthropological discoveries, including the footprints mentioned in a prior section, 320 million year old metallic spheres, 2.8 billion year old human femur bones, and the like. The public reaction to the producer of the film came mostly from anthropologists and ranged from fanatical to accusatory and even irrational. The responses included “a group of swindlers,' “the whole film is garbage,' “not any value,” and so on. Predictably, given the conspiracy of silence in the scientific community, none of the scientists were willing to discuss the subject matter in-depth or agreed to conduct further research into the subject matter. The general public believes scientists to be rational and realistic with respect to scientific theory and research. Yet, the subject under discussion proves without a doubt that the scientific community stubbornly holds to a popular theory and is not willing to apply logic and proper reasoning even in face of irrefutable facts.
Rediscover the Origins of Mankind
As we discussed earlier, the scientific community has shown time and again that any popularly held theory may not be challenged. By now, we understand clearly that anyone challenging the modern evolutionary theory will be ridiculed or ostracized. Undoubtedly, the scientific community has lost its most valuable asset: pioneering, truth seeking, realism and idealism. Research on scientific studies and reviews demonstrates that theoretical flaws are being discussed eloquently and deeply. Such reviews indicate clearly that the writers are aware of loss in personal standing should they challenge the existing theory. We can only hope that scientists will revolutionize their mindset and be impartial in their research. Then we could be optimistic that the truth will prevail and the current theory of evolution will be discarded.
Isn’t it true that every new concept and anything outside the accepted norm will be challenged? One wonders if scientists do not remember or realize that there was also opposition when Darwin’s theory of evolution was publicized. What difference do we perceive in the treatment of the opposing issues? Darwin’s theory of evolution was thoroughly discussed and the flaws swept under the table or eloquently covered up. The findings that would challenge Darwin’s theory of evolution are shelved in storage bins and for fear of being ostracized or losing one’s job, very few dare to bring the information to light. The full truth, be it known, is that continued research is biased and the evidence discrediting Darwin’s theory of evolution is being deliberately ignored. Yet, anthropological finds challenging Darwin’s theory continue to be unearthed. Maybe the scientific community will find its original purpose, become free of mental encumbrances, and systematically revisit the now popular view of human’s evolution. One hopes that the truth will be known and human hang-ups and fears will no longer obstruct its dissemination to the public.
We hope that humans will wake up and ponder the truth as propagated in not only the Buddhist scriptures, but also the scriptures of other religions, cultivation practices, and spiritual movements. The Buddhist scriptures recount that Sakyamuni told his disciples that he had succeeded in cultivation practice many hundred millions of kalpa (jie) previously. Cultivators throughout the ages have believed that humans existed more than hundreds of millions of years ago. Does this belief not correspond with the findings discussed earlier? Naturally, we concur that further studies and verification is needed, but the tools are available to closely date the artifacts and to separate the hoaxes from the true findings. Humans have to let go of preconceived notions and attitudes. Only then can one see the deeper and hidden truths.
We suggest that research with respect to human evolution should continue. If proven that Darwin’s theory no longer holds that man’s earliest ancestors were the same as those for apes and that the hundred-million-year-old artifacts suggest prehistoric cultures, humans will begin a new track of self discovery. This will foster introspection and be most conducive in the development of mankind. One hopes that knowledge of the past, even if limited, may be the cornerstone towards improvement of human kind.
1 Lee, T.E. (1966) Untitled editorial note on the Sheguiandah site. Anthropological Journal of Canada, 4(4): 18-19.
2 Forbidden Archeology
We wish to thank Dr. Don Patton, for allowing us to include the pictures “footprints of dinosaurs and human,” in this article. Furthermore, we also thank Mr. Henry Johnson for his valuable contribution to this paper.