A Brief Introduction to Basic Experiments in Parapsychology (Part IIIa): Testing Psychokinetic Ability in Everyday People

Wu Yuan

PureInsight | November 11, 2002

As described in a previous article (1), people who have the ability of psychokinesis have can to use their consciousness to affect the data distribution of random data generators. But what about everyday people? Do they have the energy to affect these machines? In the last few decades, information-processing techniques have offered convenient tools for studying the human consciousness, allowing these types of experiments to reach a level that was unimaginable in the early stages of mind psychology.

Between 1956 and 1987 alone, 68 scientists have conducted 832 experiments (Nelson & Radin, 1988) studying the interaction between a normal everyday person's consciousness and a random data generator machine. A comprehensive analysis of the 832 experiments has shown a significant data trend. While an everyday person's mind intent might not be as effective in altering random data generator machines when compared to people with the ability of psychokinesis, he does indeed have the ability to influence them. This was determined using statistical analysis after taking into consideration instrument error, experimenter error, extreme data and invalid experiments. Of note was the fact that these people were able to influence the machines to a surprisingly significant level.

The machine used in the 832 experiments was the microelectronics random data generator driven by commercial signal ware (Elgenco#3602A-15124). It consists of a semiconductor interface, a precision amplifier and a filter. The frequency of signal output is between 50 to 20,000 Hertz, after being amplified by the precision amplifier, it randomly generates a square wave between –10 and +10 in amplitude every 0.5 milliseconds. Therefore, the instrument can randomly generate positive and negative pulses of different series. After the filter, all the pulses that follow some rules are removed, making all the exported series assume a completely random arrangement that has no order. The newly generated pulses as well as the accumulated pulse series are passed through a converter, which converts it into two-byte data that can be shown as an image on a computer screen. The data finally goes to an electronic network whose output is to a central electronic management system.

To ensure the precision of the data in the 832 experiments the scientists had to use various voltages and operating systems. Each experiment also repeatedly used many counters and various operating software. Under the set condition of unmanned operation, each machine without exception would produce a multivariate binomial distribution that is consistent with a theoretically calculated distribution. The average distribution and standard deviation (the geometric mean value of distances between all data and the average) are consistent with the parameters calculated before the experiments. If an everyday persons' consciousness has the ability to influence the machine, then the data distribution produced after the experiment should deviate from the theoretically calculated distribution.

During the experiments, the machine runs at a speed that produces 1000 random two- bytes every second. The tester sits in front of the instrument but does not touch it. While sitting there the tester tries to use his mind intent to influence the data produced by the machine. Testers can have three kinds of mind intent: (1) accumulate a higher number of positive bytes then should be theoretically generated. (2) accumulate lesser number of positive bytes then should be theoretically generated. (3) do not affect the data that the machine generates. The order of each kind of mind intent used is decided either randomly by the test system or by the tester at will. The data generated under the influence of each kind of mind intent is formed by 1000-5000 two-byte data series. All data is recorded immediately by the computer and is input into the management system. At the same time, data is printed in order to perform manual statistics which are later compared with the computer generated data to see whether an error was made or not. If any data is found to have errors it is removed from the final statistics.

In the first 12 years of experiments, 91 adults who had no known extra-ordinary abilities participated in the experiments accumulated 2,497,200 rounds of experimental data. Scientists have done statistics on the data under each kind of mind intent, and calculated the average data distribution, standard deviation, standard value (z score), the extent of deviation from the theoretically calculated distribution, trust interval, notability, as well as the discrepancy between the data distributions under the first two kinds of mind intent.

The result obtained made these scientists very excited. They reached the same conclusion: an everyday person's mind intent had strong correlation with the two-byte data series generated by the random data generator machine with the distribution of the data favoring toward the mind intent of the testers. When the tester tried to make the machine generate a greater number of positive bytes than should be theoretically produced , the machine would generate more, otherwise it generated less. Under the third kind of mind intent, the experiment data distribution produced was somewhat different than theoretically calculated, but it did not reach a statistically significant level. Of note, the difference in data distribution between the first and second kinds of mind intent was so large that it reached a significance level of 6.99x10-5. After comprehensive analysis, it was found that the discrepancy between the experimental data produced and the theoretically calculated data reached 7 standard deviations! This means that there is a very high probability that the changes in the patterns of data generated under the different conditions of the testers' intent were not due to chance. And so it is possible that the testers' consciousnesses were, in fact, able to influence the pattern of data generated. It appears that everyday people may well be able to use their consciousnesses to affect the material world, but it has not been easy to recognize it.

(To be continued.)

1. http://www.pureinsight.org/pi/articles/2002/11/4/1189.html

Translated from: http://www.zhengjian.org/zj/articles/2002/10/5/18793.html

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