Nine Commentaries on the Chinese Communist Party: Part 2a

<i>The Epoch Times</i> Staff

PureInsight | December 13, 2004

The Beginnings of the Chinese Communist Party

According to the book Explaining Simple and Analyzing Compound Characters (Shuowen Jiezi) written by Xu Shen (d. 147 AD), the traditional Chinese character meaning "party" or "gang" consists of two radicals that correspond to "still or even" and "dark or black" respectively, connoting the meaning "still dark." "Party" or "party member" (which can also be interpreted as "gang" or "gang member") carries a derogatory meaning. Confucius said, "I heard that a noble man would not join a gang (party)." In the Analects (Lunyu), Confucius' interpretation of this character explains that people who help one another conceal their crimes and do bad things are said to be forming a gang (party). It is a synonym for "gang of scoundrels" and is associated with the implication of ganging up for selfish purposes.

Why did the Communist Party emerge and eventually seize power in modern China? The Chinese Communist Party (CCP) has constantly instilled into the Chinese people's minds that history has chosen the CCP, that the people have chosen the CCP, and that "without the CCP there would be no new China."

Did the Chinese people choose the Communist Party of their own initiative? Or, did the Communist Party force its selfish interests and its views upon the Chinese people? We must find answers from history.

From the late Qing Dynasty to the early years of the Republic period (1911-1949), China experienced tremendous external shocks and extensive attempts at internal reform. Chinese society was in painful turmoil. Many intellectuals and people with lofty ideals wanted to save the country and its people, but in the midst of national crisis and chaos, their sense of anxiety grew, leading first to disappointment and then complete despair. Like people who turn to any available doctor in times of illness, they looked outside China for their solutions. When the British and French styles failed, they switched to the Russian method. Anxious to succeed, they did not hesitate to prescribe the most extreme remedy for the illness, in the hope that China would quickly become strong.

The May Fourth movement of 1919 was a thorough reflection of this despair. Some people advocated anarchism; others proposed to overthrow the doctrines of Confucius, and still others suggested bringing in foreign culture. In short, they rejected Chinese traditional culture and opposed the Confucian doctrine of the middle way. Eager to take a shortcut, they advocated the destruction of everything traditional. On the one hand the radical members among them did not have a way to serve the country, and on the other hand they believed firmly in their own ideals. They felt the world was hopeless, believing that only by themselves could they find the correct approach to China's future development. They were passionate for revolution and violence.

Different experiences led to different theories, principles and paths among various groups. Eventually a group of people met Communist Party representatives from the Soviet Union. The idea of "using violent revolution to seize political power," lifted from the theory of Marxism-Leninism, appealed to their anxious minds and conformed to their desire to save the country and its people. Hence, they introduced Communism, a completely foreign concept, into China. Altogether 13 representatives attended the first CCP Congress. Later, some of them died, some ran away, some worked for the occupying Japanese force and became traitors, and some quit the CCP to join the Kuomintang (the Nationalist Party, hereafter referred to as KMT). By 1949 when the CCP came to power, only Mao Zedong (also spelled Mao Tse Tung) and Dong Biwu still remained of the original 13 Party members. It is unclear whether the founders of the CCP were aware at the time that the "deity" they had introduced from the Soviet Union was in reality an evil specter, and the remedy they sought for strengthening the nation was actually a deadly poison.

The All-Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik) (later known as the Communist Party of the Soviet Union), having just won its revolution, was obsessed with ambitions for China. In 1920, the Soviet Union established the Far Eastern Bureau in Siberia, a branch of the Third Communist International, or the Comintern. It was responsible for managing the establishment of a Communist party in China and other countries. Soon after its establishment, the bureau's deputy manager Grigori Voitinsky arrived in Beijing and contacted the Communist vanguard Li Dazhao. Li arranged for Voitinsky to meet with another Communist leader, Chen Duxiu, in Shanghai. In August of 1920, Voitinsky, Chen Duxiu, Li Hanjun, Shen Xuanlu, Yu Xiusong, Shi Cuntong and others began to prepare for the establishment of the CCP.

In June of 1921, Zhang Tailei arrived at Irkutsk in Siberia, whereupon he submitted a proposal to the Far Eastern Bureau proposing to establish the CCP as a branch of the Comintern. On July 23, 1921, under the help of Nikolsky and Maring from the Far East Bureau, the CCP was officially formed.

The Communist movement was then introduced to China as an experiment, and ever since, the CCP has set itself above all, conquering all in its path, thereby bringing endless catastrophe to China.

I. The CCP Grew by Steadily Accumulating Wickedness

It is not an easy task to introduce a foreign specter such as the Communist Party, one that is totally incompatible with the Chinese tradition, into China, a country with a history of 5,000 years of civilization. Throughout the history of the CCP, from its establishment to its gaining and maintaining political power, it has gradually become increasingly wicked. In this development the CCP has made use of the nine inherited character traits that the Communist specter brought with it: evil, deceit, incitement, unleashing the scum of society, espionage, robbery, fighting, elimination, and control. Responding to continuous crises, the CCP has further consolidated and strengthened the means and extent to which these malignant characteristics have been playing out.

First Inherited Trait: Evil—Putting on the Evil Form of Marxism-Leninism

Marxism initially attracted the Chinese Communists with its declaration to "use violent revolution to destroy the old state apparatus and to establish a proletariat dictatorship." This is precisely the root of evil in Marxism and Leninism.
Marxist materialism is predicated on the narrow economic concepts of forces of production, production relations, and surplus value. During the early, underdeveloped stages of capitalism, Marx made a shortsighted prediction that capitalism would die and the proletariat would win, which has now been proven wrong. Marxist-Leninist violent revolution and proletarian dictatorship promote power-politics and proletarian domination. The Communist Manifesto related the Communist Party's historical and philosophical basis to class conflict and struggle. The proletariat broke free from traditional morals and social relations for the sake of seizing power. Upon their first appearance, the doctrines of Communism are set in opposition to all tradition.
Human nature universally repels violence. Violence makes people ruthless and tyrannical. Thus, in all places and all times humanity has fundamentally rejected the premises of the Communist Party's theory of violence, a theory that has no antecedent in any former systems of thought, philosophy, or tradition. The Communist system of terror fell upon the earth as if from nowhere.

The CCP's ideology is built on the premise that humans can conquer nature and transform the world. The Communist Party attracted many people with its ideals of "emancipating all mankind" and "world unity." The CCP deceived many people, especially those who were concerned about the human condition and were eager to make their own mark in society. Thereafter, these people forgot that there is a heaven above. Inspired by the beautiful yet misguided notion of "building heaven on earth," they despised traditions and looked down upon the lives of others, which in turn degraded themselves. They did all of this in an attempt to provide the CCP with praiseworthy service and gain honor.

The Communist Party presented the fantasy of a "Communist paradise" as the truth, and aroused people's enthusiasm to fight for it: "For reason thunders new creation, `Tis a better world in birth." [1] Employing such an absolute and incredible idea, the CCP severed the connections between humanity and heaven, and cut the lifeline that connects the Chinese people to their ancestors and national traditions. By summoning people to give their lives for Communism, the CCP strengthened its ability to do harm.

Second Inherited Trait: Deceit—Lying in Order to Confound Good and Bad

Evil must lie. To take advantage of the working class, the CCP conferred upon it the titles of "the most advanced class," "selfless class," "leading class," and "pioneers of the proletarian revolution." When the Communist Party needed the peasants, it promised "land to the tiller." Mao applauded the peasants, saying, "Without the poor peasants there would be no revolution; to deny their role is to deny the revolution."[2] When the Communist Party needed help from the capitalist class, it called them "fellow travelers in the proletarian revolution" and promised them "democratic republicanism." When the Communist Party was almost exterminated by the KMT, it appealed loudly, "Chinese do not fight Chinese." Yet what happened? As soon as the anti-Japanese war was over, the CCP turned full force against the KMT and overthrew its government. Similarly, the CCP eliminated the capitalist class shortly after taking control of China, and in the end transformed the peasants and workers into a penniless proletariat.

The notion of a united front is a typical example of the lies the CCP tells. In order to win the civil war against the KMT, the CCP, departing from its usual tactics, adopted a "policy of temporary unification" with its class enemies, including landlords and rich farmers. On July 20, 1947, Mao Zedong announced that "Except for a few reactionary elements, we should adopt a more relaxed attitude towards the landlord class…in order to reduce hostile elements." After the CCP gained power, however, the landlords and rich farmers did not escape genocide.

Saying one thing and doing another is normal for the Communist Party. When the CCP needed to use the KMT, it argued that the two sides "strive for long-term coexistence, exercise mutual supervision, be sincere with each other, and share honor and disgrace." After seizing power in 1949, however, the CCP eliminated everyone who spoke up for democracy, labeling them anti-party rightists. Anybody who disagreed with or refused to conform to the Party's concepts, words, deeds, or organization was eliminated. Marx, Lenin and the CCP leaders have all held that the Communist Party's political power would not be shared with any other individuals or groups. From the very beginning, Communism clearly carried within it the gene of dictatorship. It is despotic; the CCP has never coexisted with any other political parties or groups in a sincere manner. Even during the so-called "relaxed" period, the CCP's coexistence with others was at most a choreographed performance.
History tells us not to believe in any promises the CCP makes, nor to trust that any of the CCP's commitments will be fulfilled. To believe the words of the Communist Party could easily cost one his or her life.

Third Inherited Trait: Incitement—Stirring up Hatred and Inciting Struggle among the Masses

Deceit often serves to incite hatred. Struggle relies on hatred. Where hatred does not exist, it can be created.

The deep-rooted patriarchal clan system in the Chinese countryside served as a fundamental barrier to the Communist Party's establishment of political power. The rural society was initially harmonious, and the relationship between the landowners and tenants was not entirely confrontational. The landowners managed and rented out land to peasants, who then relied on the land for survival. In other words, the landowners offered the farmers a means to survive, and in return the farmers supported the landowners.

This somewhat mutually dependent relationship was twisted by the CCP into extreme class antagonism and class exploitation. Harmony was turned into hostility, hatred, and struggle. The reasonable was made to be unreasonable, order was made to be chaos, and republicanism made to be despotism. The Communist Party encouraged the denial of private property, murder for profit, and the slaughter of landlords, rich farmers and their families. Many peasants were not willing to take the property of others. Some returned at night the property they took from the landlords during the day, but they were criticized by CCP work teams in rural regions as having "low class consciousness."

To incite class hatred, the CCP reduced the Chinese theater to a propaganda tool. A well-known story of class oppression, the White-Haired Girl, was originally about a female immortal and had nothing to do with class conflicts. Under the pens of the military writers, however, it was transformed into a "modern" drama, opera, and ballet used to incite class hatred.

Inciting the masses to struggle against each other is a classic trick of the CCP. The CCP created the 95:5 formula of class assignment: 95 percent of the population was assigned to various classes that could be won over, while the remaining 5 percent was designated as class enemies. People within the 95 percent were safe, but those within the 5 percent were "struggled" against. Out of fear and to protect themselves, the people strived to be included in the 95 percent. This resulted in many cases in which people brought harm to others, even adding insult to injury. The CCP has, through the use of incitement in many of its political movements, perfected this technique.

Fourth Inherited Trait: Unleashing the Scum of Society—Hoodlums and Social Scum Form the Ranks of the CCP

Unleashing the scum of society leads to evil, and evil must utilize the scum of society. Communist revolutions have often made use of the rebellion of hoodlums and social scum. The "Paris Commune," for example, actually involved homicide, arson, and violence led by social scum. Even Marx looked down upon the "lumpen proletariat." [3] In the Communist Manifesto, Marx said, "The 'dangerous class,' the social scum, that passively rotting mass thrown off by the lowest layers of the old society, may, here and there, be swept into the movement by a proletarian revolution; its conditions of life, however, prepare it far more for the part of a bribed tool of reactionary intrigue." Peasants, on the other hand, were considered by Marx and Engels to be unqualified to be any social class because of their so-called fragmentation and ignorance.

The CCP developed further the dark side of Marx's theory. Mao Zedong said, "The social scum and hoodlums have always been spurned by the society, but they are actually the bravest, the most thorough and firmest in the revolution in the rural areas."[4] The lumpen proletariat enhanced the violent nature of the CCP. The word "revolution" in Chinese literally means "taking lives," which sounds horrific and disastrous to all good people. However, the party managed to imbue "revolution" with positive meaning. Similarly, in a debate over the term "lumpen proletariat" during the Cultural Revolution, the CCP felt that "lumpen" did not sound good, and so the CCP replaced it with "proletariat" simply.

Another behavior of the scum of society is to play the rascal. When criticized for being dictators, Party officials would reveal their tendency to bully and shamelessly pronounce something along the lines of, "You are right, that is precisely what we are doing. The Chinese experience accumulated through the past decades requires that we exercise this power of democratic dictatorship. We call it the 'people's democratic dictatorship.'"

Fifth Inherited Trait: Espionage—Infiltrate, Deceive, Betray

In addition to cheating, inciting violence, and employing the scum of society, the technique of espionage and sowing dissension was also used. The CCP was skillful in infiltration. Decades ago, the "top three" outstanding undercover agents of the CCP, Qian Zhuangfei, Li Kenong and Hu Beifeng, were in fact working for Chen Geng, the manager of the Number 2 Spy Branch of the Central Committee of the CCP. When Qian Zhuangfei was working as a confidential secretary and trusted subordinate of Xu Enzeng, the director of the Investigation Office of the KMT, he used the letterhead of the KMT's Organization Department to write two letters containing the secret information of the KMT's first and second strategic plans to have Jiangxi province encircled by the KMT troops, and had them hand delivered to Zhou Enlai (also spelled as Chou En-lai) [5] by Li Kenong. In April 1930, a special double-agent organization funded by the Central Investigation Branch of the KMT was set up in the Northeast region of China. On the surface, it belonged to the KMT and was managed by Qian Zhuangfei, but behind the scenes it was controlled by the CCP and led by Chen Geng.

Li Kenong joined KMT's Armed Force Headquarters as a cryptographer. Li was the one that decoded the urgent message pertaining to the arrest and revolt of Gu Shunzhang [6], a CCP Security Bureau Director. Qian Zhuangfei immediately sent the decoded message to Zhou Enlai, thereby keeping the whole lot of spies from being caught in a dragnet.

Yang Dengying was a pro-Communist special representative for the KMT's Central Investigation Office stationed in Shanghai. The CCP let him arrest and execute those who the CCP considered unreliable. A senior officer from Henan Province once offended a party cadre, and his own people pulled some strings to put him in the KMT's jail for several years.

During the Liberation War [7], the CCP managed to plant a secret agent whom Chiang Kai-shek (also called Jiang Jieshi) [8] kept in close confidence. Liu Pei, Lieutenant General and the Deputy Minister of the Department of Defense was in charge of dispatching the KMT army. Liu was in fact an undercover agent for the CCP. Before the KMT army found out about their next assignment, the information about the planned location of the army's deployment had already reached Yan'an, headquarter of the CCP. The Communist Party would come up with a plan of defense accordingly. Xiong Xianghui, a secretary and trusted subordinate of Hu Zongnan [9], revealed Hu's plan to invade Yan'an to Zhou Enlai. When Hu Zongnan and his forces reached Yan'an, it was deserted. Zhou Enlai once said, "Chairman Mao knew the military orders issued by Chiang Kai-shek before they ever made it to Chiang's army commander."

Sixth Inherited Trait: Robbery—Plundering by Tricks or Violence Becomes a "New Order"

When the CCP pulled the Red Army together to establish its rule through military force, they needed money for arms and ammunition, food and clothes. The CCP resorted to "fund raising" mainly in the form of suppressing the local tyrants and robbing banks, behaving just like bandits. Soon these "fund raising" missions became one of the major tasks of the Red Army. For example, in a mission led by Li Xiannian, one of the CCP's senior leaders, the Red Army kidnapped the richest families in county seats in the area of western Hubei province. They did not just kidnap one single person, but one from every rich family in the clan. Those kidnapped were kept alive to be ransomed back to their families for continued monetary support of the army. It was not until either the Red Army was satisfied or the kidnapped families were completely drained of resources that the hostages were sent home, many at their last gasp. Some had been terrorized so badly that they died before they could return.

Through "cracking down on the local tyrants and confiscating their lands," the CCP extended the tricks and violence of their plunder to the whole society, replacing tradition with "the new order." The Communist Party has committed all manner of ill deeds, large and small, while it has done no good at all. It offers small favors to everyone in order to incite some to denounce others. As a result, compassion and virtue disappear completely, and are replaced with strife and killing. The "communist utopia" is actually a euphemism for violent plunder.

Seventh Inherited Trait: Fighting—Destroys the National System, Traditional Ranks and Orders

Deceit, incitement, unleashing social scum, and espionage are all for the purpose of robbing and fighting. Communist philosophy promotes fighting. The Communist revolution was absolutely not just some disorganized beating, smashing and robbing. The Party said "The main targets of peasants' attack are local tyrants, the evil gentry and lawless landlords, but in passing they also struck out against all kinds of patriarchal ideas and institutions, against the corrupt officials in the cities and against the bad practices and customs in the rural areas." [4] An organized effort was launched to destroy the entire traditional system and the customs of the countryside.

Communist fighting also includes armed forces and armed struggle. "A revolution is not a dinner party, or writing an essay, or painting a picture, or doing embroidery; it cannot be so refined, so leisurely and gentle, so temperate, kind, courteous, restrained and magnanimous. A revolution is an insurrection, an act of violence by which one class overthrows another."[4] Fighting is inevitable when attempting to seize state power by force. A few decades later, the CCP used the same characteristic of fighting to "educate" the next generation during the Great Cultural Revolution.

Eighth Inherited Trait: Elimination—Establishes a Complete Ideology of Genocide

Communism has done many things with absolute cruelty. The CCP promised the intellectuals a "heaven on earth." Later it labeled them "rightist" and put them into the infamous ninth category [10] of persecuted people, alongside landlords and spies. It deprived capitalists of their property, exterminated the wealthy landlord class, destroyed rank and order in the countryside, took authority away from local figures, kidnapped and extorted bribes from the richer people, brainwashed war prisoners, "reformed" industrialists and capitalists, infiltrated the KMT and disintegrated it, split from the Communist International and betrayed it, cleaned out all dissidents through successive political movements after it came to power in 1949, and threatened its own members with coercion.

The above-mentioned occurrences were all based on the CCP's theory of genocide. Its every political movement in the past was a campaign of terror with genocidal intent. The CCP started to build its theoretical system of genocide at its early stage as a composite of its theories on class, revolution, struggle, violence, dictatorship, movements, and political parties. It encompasses all of the experiences it has embraced and accumulated through its various genocidal practices.

The essential expression of CCP genocide is the extermination of conscience and independent thought. In this way a 'reign by terror' serves the fundamental interests of the CCP. The CCP will not only eliminate you if you are against it, but it may also destroy you even if you are for it. It will eliminate whomever it deems should be eliminated. Consequently, everyone lives in the shadow of terror and fears the CCP.

Ninth Inherited Trait: Control – The Use of Party Principles to Control the Entire Party, and Subsequently the Rest of Society

All of the inherited characteristics aim to achieve a single goal: to control the populace through the use of terror. Through its evil actions, the CCP has proved itself to be the natural enemy of all existing social forces. Since its inception, the CCP has struggled through one crisis after another, among which the crisis of survival has been the most critical. The CCP exists in a state of perpetual fear for its survival. Its sole purpose has been to maintain its own existence and power—its own highest benefit. To supplement its declining power the CCP is forced to update its superficial elements on a regular basis. The Party's benefit is not that of any single Party member or of any individual. Rather, it is the benefit of the Party as a collective entity, as a whole. The collective identity of the CCP overrides any sense of the individual.

"Party principles" have been the most vicious characteristic of this evil specter. Party principles overwhelm human nature so completely that the Chinese people are no longer free to speak or act. For instance, Zhou Enlai and Sun Bingwen were once comrades. After Sun Bingwen died, Zhou Enlai took his daughter, Sun Weishi, as his adopted daughter. During the Great Cultural Revolution, Sun Weishi was reprimanded. She later died in custody from a long nail driven into the head. Her arrest warrant had been signed by her stepfather, Zhou Enlai.

One of the early leaders of the CCP was Ren Bishi, who was in charge of opium sales during the anti-Japanese war. Opium was a symbol of foreign invasion at that time, as the British used opium imports to China to drain Chinese economy and turn Chinese people into addicts. Despite the strong national sentiment against opium, Ren dared to plant opium in a large area, risking universal condemnation. Due to the sensitive and illegal nature of the opium dealings, the CCP used the word "soap" as a code-word for opium. The CCP used the revenue from the illicit drug trade with bordering countries to fund its existence. At the Centenary of the Birth of Ren, one of the new generation of Chinese leaders highly praised Ren's Party principles, claiming that, "Ren possessed superior character and was a model Party member. He also had a firm belief in Communism and unlimited loyalty to the cause of the Party."

Another example of Party principles was Zhang Side. The Party said that he was killed by the sudden collapse of a kiln, but others claimed that he died while roasting opium. Since he was a quiet person, having served in the Central Guard Division and having never asked for a promotion, it was said, "his death is weightier than Taishan," [11] meaning that his life held the greatest importance.

Lei Feng was also known famously as the "screw that never rusts, functioning in the revolutionary machine." For a long period of time, both Lei and Zhang were used as models to educate the Chinese people to be loyal to the Party. Many Party heroes were used to model the "iron will and principle of the Party spirit."

Upon gaining power, the CCP launched an aggressive campaign of mind control to mold many new "tools" and "screws" from the successive generations. The Party formed a set of "proper thoughts" and a range of stereotypical behaviors. These protocols were initially used within the Party, but quickly expanded to the entire public. Clothed in the name of the nation, these thoughts and actions worked to brainwash people into complying with the evil of the CCP.


[1] From the Communist Anthem, "The Internationale."
[2] From Mao's "Report on an Investigation of the Peasant Movement in Hunan" (1927).
[3] Lumpen proletariat, roughly translated as slum workers. This term identifies the class of outcast, degenerate or underground elements that make up a section of the population of industrial centers. It includes beggars, prostitutes, gangsters, racketeers, swindlers, petty criminals, tramps, chronic unemployed or unemployables, persons who have been cast out by industry, and all sorts of declassed, degraded or degenerated elements. The term was coined by Marx in The Class Struggles in France, 1848-1850.
[4] Mao (1927).
[5] Zhou Enlai (March 5, 1898 - January 8, 1976), was second in prominence to Mao in the history of the CCP. He was a leading figure in the CCP and Premier of the People's Republic of China from 1949 until his death.
[6] Gu Shunzhang was originally one of the heads of the CCP special agent system. In 1931 he was arrested by the KMT and assisted them in uncovering many of the CCP's secret hideouts. All eight members of Gu's family were later strangled to death and buried in the French Concession in Shanghai. See "The CCP's History of Assassinations" for more related information (
[7] The war between the CCP and the KMT in June 1946. The war is marked by three successive campaigns: Liaoxi-Shenyang, Huai-Hai and Beiping-Tianjin, after which the CCP overthrew the rule of the KMT, leading to the founding of the People's Republic of China on October 1, 1949.
[8] Chiang Kai-shek was leader of the KMT, and later exiled to become ruler of Taiwan.
[9] Hu Zongnan (1896-1962), a native of Xiaofeng county (now part of Anji County), Zhejiang province, was successively deputy commander, acting commander and chief of staff of the KMT's Southwest Military and Administrative Headquarters.
[10] When the CCP began land reform, it categorized the people. Among the defined classes of enemies, intellectuals are next to landlords, reactionaries, spies, etc. and ranked Number 9.
[11] From a poem by Sima Qian, a historian and scholar in the West Han Dynasty. His famous poem says, "Everyone has to die; one dies either more solemn than Taishan or lighter than a feather." Taishan is one of the major mountains in China.

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