PureInsight | January 24, 2002
Humans are about to enter the 21st century. Looking back at the course of development of humankind’s science, we discover that the more we comprehend in breadth and depth, the more inadequate our knowledge seems to be. The unsolvable mysteries in nature and newly emerging things that have yet to be recognized seem more numerous. Before the arrival of the new era, we should perhaps take a short pause and think about the past, present and future course of science, and think about how we can bring a new science into the new era of human history.
Modern science does not have the ultimate truth. Persistent seeking, repeated overturning of old theories, and the creation of new theories are the ceaseless inner motivations for the development of modern science. Speculating on the history of the development of science from a macroscopic level, we see that throughout the creation, development and perfection of any new field of science, there is always a process of breaking through traditional scientific conventions. It would not be smooth sailing, however, and one might even run into criticism and oppositions caused by conventional notions and preconceived ideas. As a true and serious scientist, one should confront newly emerged things with a rational attitude and not hold on to preconceptions. One should explore with a realistic and truth-seeking scientific attitude. Otherwise, human science would not make any new developments, and humankind would not have any progress.
The masterpiece of Falun Gong, Zhuan Falun (Written by Master Li Hong Zhi, the Publishing Company of Chinese TV Broadcasting, Dec. 1994), is a magnificent work describing the cultivation practice of one’s body. It also gives us many invaluable revelations on the numerous realms of life, the universe, and time-space. The principles that Zhuan Falun teaches are a higher science that can enable humankind to perceive traditional scientific conventions in a completely new light. It provides tremendously helpful inspirations for mankind’s exploration of the truth of the universe and for the development of science. This article will discuss some of our experiences and understandings of Zhuan Falun and the existing conventions of modern science from the aspects of prehistoric civilization, the time-spaces of the universe, the science of the human body, the phenomena of life, and the history of the development of science.
1. The Existence of Multiple Periods of Human Civilization
“Many bold scientists abroad have already publicly recognized this as prehistoric culture and a civilization prior to this of our humankind. In other words, there existed more than one period of civilization before our civilization. Through unearthed relics, we have found products that are not of only one period of civilization. It is thus believed that after each of the many times when human civilizations were annihilated, only a small number of people survived and they lived a primitive life. Then, they gradually multiplied in number to become the new human race, beginning a new civilization. Later, they were again exterminated and would then once again produce a new human race. It just goes through such different periodical changes.” (From “Qigong Is Prehistoric Culture” in Lecture One of Zhuan Falun)
This theory has been confirmed by a myriad of archeological discoveries in the past two decades. Some of these scientific findings have been selected and are summarized in the following section.
1.1 Discoveries of Pre-historic Man-Made Tools and Ancient Relics
Modern archeologists discovered a large quantity of pre-historic man-made tools and ancient relics and measured their respective geological ages (There are a number of approaches to determine the geological age of a fossil. Most of these approaches measure the half-lives of the radioactive elements existing in the fossils in question.) All of the measurements of the artifacts revealed a fact --- human civilizations began further back than we think.
A fossil of a dinosaur footprint from the Cretaceous period was discovered in the riverbed of the Raluxy River in Texas. This discovery was followed by a more astonishing one --- a fossil of 12 pairs of human footprints was discovered 18 and a half inches above the dinosaur footprint. A pair of human footprints was pressed over the three-toed dinosaur footprint, cutting into it. Thus, the vertical section of the dinosaur footprint showed signs of compression. These signs proved the fossil to be authentic because no existing technology today is capable of achieving the same result. Archeologists also discovered fossils of a human finger and of a hammer made of iron and wood inside and aligned with a layer of rock. The handle remained attached to the hammer. The hammer was made of an alloy of a mixture that had never been seen before, which was 96.6% iron, 0.74% sulphur, and 2.6% chlorine. It is beyond today’s technology to make an alloy out of a combination of these elements. The handle had turned into coal; this kind of transformation requires an extremely high pressure and temperature from the rock stratum in the area. If the hammer had been dropped in the area after the rock stratum had been formed, there simply was nothing in the environment that could have caused this transformation. The only logical explanation was that the hammer had been in the rock stratum before the stratum was formed. Because there was no fossil found in other stratum in the area and the only fossils of the dinosaur footprint and of the hammer were inside the same rock stratum, archeologists were able to confirm that man and dinosaurs did exist in the same period of time.
It is known that the trilobite existed between 280 million and 320 million years ago, and had become extinct. However, an American scientist named William J. Meister, during his expedition at Antelope Springs in Utah, discovered a fossil of a shoeprint of an adult human and a footprint of a human child. This fossil measured about 10 and quarter inches long and half an inch wide. It was found within a sedimentary rock from the Cambrian period with another trilobite fossil only inches above. Melvin. A. Cook, a renowned chemist at Utah University has confirmed that the shoeprint and footprint on the fossil came from a human.
A renowned archeologist, Mary D. Leakey, led her research expedition team in 1976 to Leotoli, east of the East African Canyon of northern Tanzania. The expedition team discovered a set of footprints, which resemble those of modern human beings. The footprints were found on sedimentary rock from volcanic ash. They made a geologic measurement on the rock and determined its age to be between 3.4 million and 3.8 million years. The footprints spanned 27 meters when lined up. The structure of the foot appeared to differ from that of an ape. The depth of the imprint suggested that the person had landed his/her feet in the following sequence: heel, arch, sole, and finally the thumb toe. The thumb toe appeared to be in line with the foot. On the other hand, chimpanzees and Australopithecus land their feet in a different sequence: heel, outer rim of foot, and then the middle toe. Moreover, each thumb toe was diagonal to the foot.
In 1817, two archeologists, Henry R. Schoolcraft and Thomas H. Benton, discovered two human footprints on a piece of limestone at the west bank of the Mississippi River. Each footprint measured ten and half inches long. The distance between each toe was wider than today’s man. There was hardly any arch in the feet, a common result from walking bare-foot on a daily basis. The footprints appeared to be made by a person who walked at a steady and slow pace. These characteristics of the footprint together suggested that the area of limestone used to be soil long time ago and, according to geological measurements, was 270 million years old.
In 1880 a geologist, J. D. Whitney, discovered a series of man-made stone tools from 300 feet underground at Temple Mountain in California. He began his analysis on these tools and found that one of them resembled today’s butter churning stick. The stratum was determined to be of 55 million years old.
In 1887 an archeologist named Florentino Ameghino discovered firestones, fossils of human bones, and an ancient furnace dating back to 3.5 million years ago at Monte Hermoso in Argentina. The discovery revealed the existence of a human civilization 3.5 million years ago.
On May 27th 1999 Scientific News in China reported a discovery in Spain of fossils of human pelvises, hipbones, and some man-made tools of stone from 300,000 years ago. There was another front-page illustrated news story about a domestic archeological discovery of rice grain from 7000 years ago in China’s Zhe-Jian Province.
The November 1998 edition of Science magazine told a story of an archeological discovery in the ruins of a city dating back 9000 years. The discovery was made by Tim Appenzeller, Daniel Clery, and several other archeologists during their expedition in Anatolia in western Asia. The May edition of Science magazine told another story in the Mungo Lake and the Willandra Lake in Australia where archeologists uncovered 350 pieces of human bones as well as ancient artifacts such as furnaces from 30,000 years ago. In the third cave of Mungo they also uncovered a male human mummy wearing dye made out of dye stone. The mummy’s arms were crossed before his chest, an indication of a burial custom in the ancient civilization.
In 1965, two archeologists, Bryan Patterson and W. W. Howells, discovered a human humerus dating back 4 million years in Kanapoi of Kenya. Professor Henry M. McHenry and Professor Robert S. Corruccini at the University of California examined the humerus and found it almost identical to that of modern people. In 1972 a large quantity of human thigh bones from 2 million years ago were discovered in the Turkana Lake of Kenya. These thighbones were also very similar to those of today’s humans. In 1913 a German scientist, Hans Reck, discovered a complete human skeleton in the Olduvai Canyon of Tanzania. The structure of the skeleton found was also found to be virtually identical to that of today’s human with one distinction --- the skeleton was one million years old.
On April 6, 1998 the People’s Daily newspaper in China featured a story with the following headline: “Scientists’ Studies on ‘Wizard Mountaineers’ Confirmed Human Civilizations in China Appeared as Early as Two Million Years Ago.” In November 1997 Huang Wang-Po at the Department of Ancient Amniotes and Ancient Anthropology at Chinese Science Institute, along with Professor Xu Zi-Kang at the Peking Library, started an archeology expedition in the Wizard Mountain District of Chong-Qing City in search for relics of legendary “Wizard Mountaineers”. A large quantity of man-made stone tools was discovered. Jia Lang-Po, an Ancient Anthropologist, and other experts, after their studies on these artifacts, concluded that the artifacts revealed signs of usage by humans, the very same signs shown in other stone tools surfaced at other “Wizard Mountaineer” sites. They were indeed artifacts from ancient human civilizations. Fossils of “Wizard Mountaineers” were first discovered in 1985 at the Dragon Skeleton Hill by Huang Wang-Po. During the period of 1988 to 1996, researchers from Iowa University, Archeology Department of Peking University, and Chinese Geologist Institute, measured the geologic age of the fossils and learned that they were approximately 2 million years old. Back in 1995 Dr. Shi Han of Ancient Anthropology, and Huang Wang-Po published their findings in an article titled “Ancient Anthropology in Asia and their Craftsmanship” in 6554th edition of Science magazine. Because their arguments were based on only two pieces of artifacts of “Wizard Mountaineers”, there was a general skepticism on whether “Wizard Mountaineers” were humans or apes. The discovery in 1997, therefore, confirmed that “Wizard Mountaineers” were indeed humans. Moreover, this discovery updated the history of human evolution, and made experts wonder the reliability of Darwin’s theory of evolution. Meanwhile, the discovery has also motivated archeologists to continue their searches in China of ancient human fossils and relics with the ambition to resolve the enigma of the origin of human life with scientific evidence.
In June 2 1999 Chinese Central Television featured a story titled “The Earliest Human Relics in China”. Archeologists made even further progress when Chinese archeologists discovered a large quantity of tools of stone and bones inside the Ren-Z cave in Fan-Chang of An-Hui Province. Experts examined these tools and concluded that these man-made tools were dated back from 2 to 2.4 million years ago, which was at least 30,000 years earlier than the earliest discovery in Asia. A news critic made a comment about this report: the origin of human life has been the most popular subject in the fields of Archeology and Ancient Anthropology. Scientists worldwide have been searching for the fossils from the earliest human civilization. With each new discovery of fossils experts continue to update themselves on the knowledge of human evolution.
The aforementioned scientific evidence has confirmed that there have been pre-historic human civilizations. In addition, these archeological discoveries revealed the existence of very advanced civilizations. These civilizations were highly achieved in the areas of architecture, astronomy, geography, physics, alchemy, medicine, and in the arts. Some civilizations were even far more advanced than today’s civilization.
1.2 Prehistoric Architecture
In architecture, many prehistoric architectural complexes on earth are made of megalith. They are characterized by their huge and magnificent style and gigantic stones. In addition, they are put together in a precise manner. These stones can only be moved by modern machines. For some of them, even modern machines are not able to move them. These architectural complexes incorporate precise astronomical knowledge. The dimensions and angles of these buildings correspond precisely to the relationships of certain heavenly bodies and contain very profound meanings.
For example, Khufu Pyramid was composed of over 2.3 million blocks of stone. The average weight of a stone is 2.5 tons, and the heaviest one weighs as much as 250 tons. Its geometry measurements are very exact and its four faces look out towards the East, South, West and North. Its height times 109 equals the distance from the earth to the sun, and if times 43,200, equals the distance from the North Pole to the equatorial plane. Its perimeter times 43,200 gives the exact perimeter of earth equator. Its location is just on the meridian of the earth, and a small hole inside the pyramid is aligned to Canicula. In addition, French chemist Joseph David Duvais believed that the stones of the pyramid very possibly were poured artificially, based on the study of chemistry and micrology.
The Sphinx on Giza Plateau faces east. According to the latest astronomical and geological analysis, its time of construction was very likely much earlier than previous archaeologists’estimates. Professor Robert M. Schoch, from the Geological Society of America, said that corrosion on the body of the Sphinx was probably not due to sand blown by wind. The corrosion made by sand and wind would be horizontal and sharp, but the edge of corrosion on the body of Sphinx was comparatively round and blunt and showed curved down waviness. Some of the corrosion was very deep, up to 2 meters. On the other hand, the level of corrosion on the upper body was relatively more serious than that of the lower body. This is a typical of corrosion made by rain. The time that the Sphinx was exposed to the air was no longer than 1,000 years, and after that it was buried under sand and stones. If the Sphinx was really built in the Khafre Dynasty in ancient Egypt and was corroded by sand and wind, its contemporaneous architecture made of limestone should have corrosion to the same degree as the Sphinx had. However, since 3000 B.C. there has not been adequate rainwater that could have corroded the Sphinx of Giza Plateau. So, the only possible explanation for the corrosion would be that it was made a long time ago when there was plenty of rain and the temperature was high on Giza Plateau. Additionally, based on astronomical calculation, from about 11,000 B.C. to 8,810 B.C., during the vernal equinox each year on the earth, the sun rose in the east sky with Leo as background. At that time the Sphinx faced Leo exactly. According to analysis above, archaeologists presumed that the Sphinx was built more than 10,000 years ago.
Tiahuanaco cultural relics are located on a plateau with an altitude of 4000 meters, which is on the borders of Bolivia and Peru in South America. It is not far away from Lake Titicaca and was built by laying huge stones next to one another, where each stone weighed as much as tens of tons, even several hundred tons. Archaeologists also found some small metal nails in the gap of the stones, whose function was to fix the stones. It was speculated that these metal nails were made by melting metal, followed by pouring it into a chiseled stone mold. Probably the most spectacular thing was the stone gate, which was made out of one piece of rock. It stood tall and upright on a foundation of 30 feet in length, 15 feet in width and 6 feet in height, and was chiseled from the same stone as the gate was made. On the Sun Gate of the ancient city of Tiahuanaco was sculpted the ancient animal, Cuvieronius (similar to the modern elephant), which became extinct 12 thousand years ago, and Xiphodon, which became extinct at the same time. Also, on the Sun Gate was carved the astronomical calendar that was both complicated and accurate. A lot of fossils of marine creatures like seashell and flying fish were dug out from Tiahuanaco relics, which indicates it was a harbor with complete boatyards and docks. Among all docks was a huge one that could accommodate hundreds of ships to load and unload goods simultaneously. The weight of each stone used to build the dock varies from 100 to 150 tons and the largest one weighs up to 440 tons. According to the calculation of Bolivian scholar Professor Posnansky, who devoted his lifetime to the study of Tiahuanaco culture, based on the obliquity of the ecliptic, the ancient city might have been built 17 thousand years ago.
An ancient castle, Sacsayhuaman, was located on the north suburb of Cozco, the capital of the ancient Inca Empire in the mountains of Andes in South America. It was built by the laying and delicate chiseling of gigantic stones, weighing more than 100 tons each. One of the stones is as high as 28 feet and its estimated weight is as much as 360 tons (equal to the weight of 500 cars).
Located in ancient Babylon relics and built 5000 years ago, the Tower of Babel was 91 meters in length and 91 meters in width. It was built by laying giant stones. It had seven stories and was as high as hundreds of meters.
Tall Stonehenge stones stand upright on the Salisbury Plain in southwest England. Generally, it is believed that it has 4,000 years of history. It subtly incorporated a lot of astronomical knowledge. There are also many megalith buildings like these in the world.
1.3 Prehistoric Astronomy
In Astronomy, ancient Mayan did not have the telescope but they knew the precise circulation periods of heavenly bodies that were very close to modern calculations. For instance, the precise modern measurement of one solar year (i.e., one year, as spoken in common usage) is 365.2422 days, and ancient Mayan believed that the length of one solar year was 365.2420 days, which is only 0.0002-day less than the accurate value. Similarly, the Mayan concept of the time that the moon finishes one circle around the earth was 29.5305588 days, while modern measurement is 29.528395 days. The Mayan calculation of syzygy period of the Venus was as accurate as one day missing in every 6,000 years. In Guatemala, a stele excavated from Quiriga recorded the positions of the sun and the moon on a certain day 400 million years ago, and the process of calculation was showed clearly. In Africa, there is a tribe named Dogon. By their peculiar understanding, they knew Canicula in detail. Canicula was so hard to observe that not until 1970 could modern astronomers obtain its first picture. In the legend of a Dogon tribe, Canicula is an amphiaster. The observation of modern astronomers, using the most advanced telescope, demonstrated that Canicula really has two companion stars. Dogon people also knew that Saturn has rings and Jupiter has four major moons.
1.4 Prehistoric Geography
In Geology, a map drafted by a Turkish person, Piri Ibn Haji Memmed, in 1559, showed clearly the coastlines of North and South America, but it was two centuries later when America was discovered by excursionists and mapmakers. (See http://www.wwatching.net/enigma_ancient_maps.htm) Additionally, there were also records about America in ancient Tibetan documents that could be dated 3,500 years ago. A South Pole coastline map drafted by a Turkish person, Oronteus Finaeus, in 1532, was very similar to the modern map of Antarctica. (See http://www.wwatching.net/enigma_ancient_maps.htm#Antarctica) In addition, he drew the shape of the Antarctic continent accurately when it was not covered by ice 8,000 years ago. But it was not until 1958 A.D. when scientists performed a survey, penetrating the ice cover, that modern people knew the shape of Antarctica covered by ice. All these maps from the 16th century were copied from still older maps.
1.5 Prehistoric Physics
In physics, a large-scale nuclear reactor was discovered at the Uranium mining area of Oklo in the Republic of Gabon in Africa. In June 1972, a Uranium refinery in France, which imported Uranium ore from Oklo, surprisingly found that the U235 content of the imported Uranium ore was less than 0.3%, while the U235 content of any other ores was above 0.72%. Later on, several scientists went to investigate this issue. Finally, they acknowledged it was an ancient nuclear reactor, which was built 2 billion years ago, and had been running for 500 thousand years. From June 23 to 27, 1975, International Atomic Energy Agency held a special topic conference of scientific discussions on Oklo phenomenon in Libreville, Gabon. The meeting received more than 40 papers from 74 attendees from 19 countries and 2 international organizations.
1.6 Prehistoric Smelting Technology
With respect to the field of smelting technology, miners at Klerksdorp in South Africa found a few hundred metal spheres from a stratum of earth estimated to be 2.8 billion years old. There are very fine grooves on the spheres, which specialists in iron technology concluded could not have occurred by any natural process. In 1968, archaeologists Y. Druet and H. Salfati found a metal tube from the Cretaceous period, about 65 million years ago, in the Saint-Jean de Livet region of France. In 1871, while archaeologist William E. Dubois was drilling a well at Lawn Ridge in Illinois, he found a coin-like object at a depth of 114 feet. The Illinois State Geological Survey Department confirmed that the strata in which the object was found belonged to a geological period 200,000 to 400,000 years old. On June 5, 1852, the Scientific American magazine published an article entitled 'A Relic of a Bygone Age,' which mentioned that in the Dorchester region of Massachusetts, a metal vase was found from a Cambrian period stratum of 600 million years ago. The vase was determined to be made from a white zinc alloy and included a large amount of silver. In the summer of 1966, American geologist, Dr. Virginia McIntyre, examined a batch of iron spears from Mexico, which were initially estimated to be 20,000 years old. After further investigations they were found to be 250,000 years old. Erected at a temple in New Delhi, India, is an iron pillar that is at least 4,000 years old. Even today, there is no rust found on it after exposure to phosphoric and sulphuric chemicals, as well as rain.
1.7 Prehistoric Medical Science
China’s earliest traditional Chinese medicine work, 'Huang Di Nei Jing,' consists of 'Su Wen', 'Ling Jiu' and so on, a total of eighteen volumes and 162 sections. There are many topics besides medical science. They include astronomy, geography, phenology, meteorology, the calendar and so on. The contents include physical fitness, 'yin yang', the state of internal organs, main and collateral channels relating to acupuncture points, diagnosis, channelling of body energy, properties of medicines and so forth. Main and collateral channels have been verified by modern science, and on this basis various equipment for probing acupuncture points have been developed. Although many acupuncture points are extremely well concealed and not easily located even by the most modern medical equipment, the ancient Chinese were already very familiar with, and were utilizing such points for curing patients. The acupuncture knowledge of China has been referred to by the West as the 'Magic Needle of the Orient' and acknowledged as a miracle in the medical history of the world. A single needle can be inserted into the top of a person’s head and come out of the lower jaw, without bleeding or pain. It can also be used on many other acupuncture points to cure illnesses. How did the ancients know of such channels, acupuncture points and the art of acupuncture?
1.8 Prehistoric Arts and Crafts
Regarding arts and crafts, in the wilderness of the Nazca region of Peru there are gigantic patterns on the ground, the largest being five kilometers long. The patterns look vividly alive, and the whole pattern can only be fully recognized from high up in the air. The width to depth ratio of the channels making up the patterns were so accurately calculated and designed, that the patterns would be formed with the light and shade of the rising sun, making the patterns appear vividly on the surface of the earth. On May 17, 1997, China Science News published an article titled 'China Discovers Hundreds of Million-Year-Old Rock- Painting from Antiquity' that reported China's archaeologists finding in the quarry at Guangxi's Bao Mountain vivid rock paintings. According to the authentication by the National Minerals Special Research Station, the paintings are 450 million years old. Included in the article was a photo of the rock paintings captioned, 'Early Spring.' The commentary said that every piece of painting was a unique and never duplicated treasure. Archaeologist W. Eric Wendt used carbon-14 dating to determine the age of a small piece of rock carving from South Namibia's Apollo Number 11 cave and concluded that it was 27,000 years old. That puts it in the same time frame as the European 'Super Palaeolithic Art' period. Science magazine of the United States in an article issued on November 20, 1998, reported that archaeologists all over the world were discovering large quantities of prehistoric carvings and frescos. The discovery of a fresco in France at Grotte Chauvet is 32,000 years old, and it depicts a pregnant woman together with various animals such as lions, bears, rhinoceros and so on. Alexander Marshack, an archaeologist at Harvard University, after examining a 30,000-year-old elephant tusk carving unearthed in Vogelherd, Germany, concluded that the tools used in carving the tusk were very sophisticated and that those who did the carving were highly civilized and extremely skilled craftsmen. In Tata, Hungary, a polished woolly mammoth tusk used as a wall plaque was unearthed, and its age was estimated to be between 50,000 to 100,000 years old. At the Golan Heights in the Middle East a 250,000-year-old prehistoric implement known as the 'Berekhat Ram' had a head portrait of a woman wearing delicate ornaments carved on it.
An extremely long list of similar reports to those above in the field of archaeology can be made. The traditional viewpoint is that the human race became civilized only in the past few thousand years. Periods earlier than that are considered to belong to primitive society. Then how did the ancients obtain the know-how of science if their level of civilization does not conform to their knowledge? How is it then that there are relics of human civilization from tens of thousands and even hundreds of thousands years ago? In accordance with Darwin's Theory of Evolution, how is it possible for monkeys of tens of thousands or hundreds of thousands of years ago to have such advanced scientific knowledge and human civilization? This inspires us to re-evaluate the traditional theory of human civilization and history.
1.9 Questions regarding Darwin's 'Theory of Evolution'
The evidence of scientific knowledge in prehistoric civilizations initiates an extremely forceful challenge to Darwin's 'Theory of Evolution'.
Firstly, Darwin's 'Theory of Evolution' is only a set of theories based on 'Gradualism'. However, this gradualism theory contains many flaws. Darwin's theory states that natural selection must necessarily develop through a very slow process of continual accumulation of optimal hereditary changes in the organism. In his letter to Charles Lyell, he stated that 'if my theory of natural selection requires to draw support from...then only can the passage of sudden evolution be coherent, I will discard it as muck.... and if at any step in the process, mystical progress is required then the natural selection theory is not worth a dime.' Advocates of the evolution theory contend that hereditary changes must occur at an infinitesimally slow pace and cannot be observed. After an extremely long period of natural selection, fauna and flora will evolve into new species. Higher order animals are derived from lower order species. The animal kingdom can be compared to a large tree. Starting from the same source, lower animals can be compared to the root, while higher animals can be compared to the branches. In this way, evolution is a progressive and continuous process, gradually improving. This is the well-known 'Evolution Tree' in biology.
If this were true, then for a primordial organism to evolve to a complex higher life form, they must undergo a series of a large number of very minute changes morphologically. However, archaeologists have not discovered evidence of transitory organisms even at the present time. The Theory of Evolution maps out the progression as: primordial unicellular organisms, multicellular micro-organisms, lower life forms in the sea, crustaceans, fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals, primates, apes, humans. However, not a single example of life forms between those listed organisms have ever found. Therefore, how did the life forms progress slowly from the lower end to the higher end? How can the flaw in the theory linking the various species be explained?
As an example, if human beings were descended from apes (anthropoids), then on the intervening stages there must be evidence of transitory creatures, like various fossils and implements they used, proving that they existed. Fossils of early humans have been unearthed. Fossils of the apes have been found. But not a single fossil of the creatures in the transition period was ever found. If there is no such evidence, then the theory of apes evolving into humans is groundless. In 1892, archaeologist Dubois discovered a skull fragment similar to that of an ape and at a distance of 40 feet from a thighbone. He said that it was obvious that both pieces of bone belonged to the same animal. This animal was man-like as it stood and walked erect but had bones like the apes. This would be the transitional creature linking apes to humans. Later it was established that the bones were from an ape and a human co-existing in the area at that time. Donald Johansson found at the Great Rift Valley of South Africa some bones of a creature that was named 'Lucy,' who was described as the common ancestor of apes and humans. Present day scientists have determined that it is the remains of an extinct ape belonging to the 'Ancient Southern Afarensis species' and not related to humans.
Also, recorded in fossils from 2.8 billion years ago, the most obscure is the 'Cambrian Life's Explosion' or also known as 'Cambrian Life's Big Bang' (denoting it as similar to the 'Big Bang' Theory; animals suddenly appearing on earth). On May 25, 1995, the People's Daily Overseas Edition reported on the subject in an article 'Focus on the Results of Research of the Fossil Cluster at Cheng Jiang'. The report mentioned that the 'Cambrian Life's Explosion' was a major event in the evolution of life on earth. Conducting further research in this area could very well shake the theory of evolution. On July 19, 1995, the People's Daily published another article, 'The Fossils at Cheng Jiang Challenges the ‘Theory of Evolution’'. The author of the article Ding Bangjie pointed out that the core contention of Darwin's Theory of Evolution was that species evolve by gradual changes. But during the Cambrian Period, about 530 million years ago, life on earth suddenly changed from unicellular to multi-cellular organisms. This change was a giant leap.
The archaeological discovery of the 'Cheng Jiang Fossil Cluster in China' attracted immense interest from the world news media. It shook the world archaeological and biological community. The Cheng Jiang fossil cluster was from the Pre-Cambrian Period (before 550 million years ago). In addition, a similar discovery by Burgess in a shale layer was made in Canada (before 530 million years ago). It also contained evidence of an 'explosion' of a diverse set of life forms. It can be seen that during the Cambrian Period (before 507 to 500 million years ago), the vast majority of the various classes of animal life already had their own clear representatives. But before the Cambrian Period, not only were multicellular organisms extremely rare amongst the various fossil clusters found, no indication was ever discovered of anything resembling the ancestors of animals. That is to say, though most classes of animals appeared in the Cambrian Period, according to Darwin's Theory of Evolution, then the multicellular organisms appearing in the Cambrian Period must have undergone a slow and lengthy period of change to reach the state that they were found in. However, no evidence of transitory fossils was ever found. Could it be that the records of fossils are incomplete? But it must be noted that fossils form randomly, then why is it that only the transitory fossils are missing?
When law Professor Phillip Johnson at the University of California at Berkeley read the document on the Theory of Evolution, he immediately found many flaws in its presentation and circumventions. As a judge, he questioned, 'How can we think the ‘Theory of Evolution’ factual? Where is the irrefutable evidence?' In the book he wrote, 'Darwin on Trial', he summed up by saying,” What fossils expose to us are all sudden appearance of organisms without any indication of evolution...the sudden appearance of such organisms on the whole did not evolve further irrespective of climatic or environmental changes in subsequent millions of years. If this sustains Darwin’s Theory of Evolution, then these circumstances should bring about immense changes to the various species.'
Secondly, the mutation of genes in the Theory of Evolution lacks scientific evidence. From the point of view of the component of the Theory of Evolution, the theory postulates that genes of organisms are basically very stable, but suddenly they mutate and give rise to variations of the previous generation. Moreover, these variations can be transmitted to the next generation. Because they can be carried from generation to generation, the variations between generations become greater and greater. According to this logic, sudden change becomes the evidence of evolution. Nevertheless, according to results of statistical analysis, more than ninety-nine percent of mutations are abnormal and are even harmful and have defects to the extent of becoming life threatening. They are not the beneficial, appropriate or positive type of variation. Furthermore, after the changes, the organisms will not survive for long. Therefore, sudden changes in organisms are rare. Such changes are degenerative and not evolving. There are changes in organisms, maybe in coloration, but basic structures are not altered. For example, a snake can change its color to white, and the fruit fly can change into a larger fruit fly because of variations. Tortoises can change so the color of its shell is variegated. However, no matter how the sudden changes occur, the organisms still remain within itsown species and do not become a higher, different species.
Chinese scholars, from the probability of gene mutations calculated the probability of creation of a new species by the formula:
M denotes the probability of a species mutating (1/1000); C denotes the probability that the mutated gene can co-exist with the other genes in the new organism at a higher level (estimated to be 1/100); L denotes the probability of surviving competition and being able to reproduce (1/10); B denotes probability that the organism's changes is related to and conducive to evolution (most mutations are harmful, the probability is 1/1000); S denotes the probability that the mutated gene can be stable and expand (1/100); N denotes the number of the genes required by the new organism, say 10 (actually the number required is far greater than 10), then the probability of an organism evolving into a new species is therefore:
P＝（1/10001/1001/101/10001/100) 10 = 10-10
Assuming that the organism reproduces 1,000 generations per year with estimated number of 1,010 units per generation, to produce a new species via evolution requires 1097 years, but at present the universe is estimated to be 20 billion years old, it shows that to evolve through genetic changes is nearly impossible.
At present, several schools of thought have put forward and developed new theories of evolution. German biologist Weissman believes that organisms are composed of germ plasm specializing in reproduction and other tissues specializing in other functions. Germ plasm has continuity and independence, and is not subject to influences of other tissues or the environment. Germ plasm is considered the object of natural selection. He believes that the natural selection of germ plasm is the one and only mechanism of evolution. He opposes the idea proposed by Darwin's Theory of Evolution that characterized regression and acquired hereditary characteristics as evolution's auxiliary factor. Instead, he considers evolution as a process with no guidance, program, target, character, or predictability, but is an entirely natural process. This germ plasm theory is not consistent with the fact that there are hereditary substances in body cells as well. Supporters of this theory are unable to produce the transitory evidence. In spite of so much opposition towards the Theory of Evolution, they still hold on to the 'gradualism' theory.
At the present time, courageous, internationally known scientists have already begun to address the severe challenge to Darwin's Theory of Evolution. They recognize that Darwin's Theory of Evolution is just one of many theories regarding the origin of life but not the absolute truth. New Zealand molecular biologist Michael Denton in the book Evolution: Theory in Jeopardy concluded in the last section that irrespective of the high status placed on the theory of evolution, with numerous people placing their hearts and energy, confining their thoughts within the Darwinian doctrine, the truth tells us that nature is not confined. As of today, we still do not comprehend the sudden appearance of life forms. This 'riddle within a riddle' -- the beginning of life on earth -- is still as mysterious as when Darwin set sail on the “Beagle.'
Summing up the above, Darwin and others who subscribe to the theory of evolution are faced with countless flaws and face doubts everywhere. The cyclical civilization of mankind has much scientific basis.
“Qigong is a Prehistoric Culture” in Lecture One of Zhuan Falun says: “It is impossible that our planet Earth, in this immense universe and the Milky Way, has been orbiting very smoothly at all times. It might have bumped into a certain planet or run into other problems, leading to great disasters… only a small number of people would survive and enter the next period, again living a primitive life. As the human population increased, civilization would eventually emerge again.”
In the lengthy history of the universe, the Earth has encountered great floods, tidal waves, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, glaciers and even the possibility of bombardment by extra-terrestrial objects. Within the solar system are an estimated 1.4 billion comets, and some small planets that may stray into the system too. Of course quite a number of these objects will be captured by the gravity of Jupiter and be drawn into its orbit. But who can guarantee that some of these objects will not hit earth? Especially when all planets in the solar system are lined up a shape of a cross, those comets at the LaGrange instability points are even more likely to hit Earth. The present understanding by scientists is that any extra-terrestrial object with a diameter between 0.6 kilometers to 5 kilometers crashing into earth would cause a 'meteor winter.' It would cause total darkness and force the earth to be in total winter conditions for many months or years. There will be no harvest of crops, with the ecology completely destroyed and the entire planet facing famine. With the annihilation of living things, the destruction of the ozone layer, the appearance of acid rain, the poisoning of flora, the human race will be facing the brink of the end of the world. A U.S. Geological Survey Department's astronomer Schumacher predicted that in the vicinity of the space near earth are more than 200,000 small satellites of diameters of about ten meters, some of which will collide with Earth once every 1,000 years. There are also 2,000 similar objects with diameters exceeding one kilometer. These are estimated to collide with earth once in 100,000 years. Between July 17 and 19, 1994, the Schumacher-Levi No. 9 comets crashed into Jupiter. The energy released by the collisions totaled many times the energy of all the nuclear weapons on earth combined. Is there not a possibility that such comets may veer off course and hit the earth?
A geology specialist from the University of California, Los Angeles, Frank Kyte, wrote to Nature magazine (Letters to Editor section) on November 18, 1998, pointing out that he had been in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico and found in the cretaceous layer of the Chicxulub Crater when the third period (same period as when the dinosaurs became extinct) began. Meteorites were found embedded in that layer. The fossils contained chromium, and were determined to be 65 million years old, proving that the meteor crashed into the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico during that period. The gigantic explosion from the collision scattered the meteorites 5,400 miles in a westerly direction, settling in the seabed in the mid-Pacific Ocean area. That collision led to the extinction of dinosaurs.
Other than the collisions with Earth that brought great disasters, there could also be other factors. An example is the movement of the tectonic plates. During the early nineties, some Australian scientists found beech estimated to be two to three million years old at a site two hundred miles from the South Pole. According to assumptions by contemporary geologists, to move the tectonic plate at the South Pole to a site where beech can survive, it would take fifty to sixty million years. But the specimen found was only two to three million years old. There is only one explanation for this anomaly: it was possibly due to immense upheaval of the tectonic plates that the Continent of the South Pole moved to the Temperate zone in less than two million years.
In 1977 in Siberia, a worker from the former Soviet Union commenced work with his bulldozer and found a carcass of an elephant-like animal. Later it was confirmed by specialists that it was the complete remains of a woolly mammoth. Subsequently, archaeologists found an abundance of frozen remains of mammals in the uninhabited regions in Northern Siberia and the North Pole regions. They were mostly mammoths but included rhinoceros and other animals. Many of the remains were well preserved and whole, though some were crushed and mixed with tree branches. The contents of their stomachs were examined and found to contain much vegetation like hyacinth, calamus and some wild flowers, which had not been completely digested. Such vegetation cannot survive in present day Siberia. They were from warmer regions and found only in the plains. But why were they found in a region so close to the North Pole? Besides this, countless frozen remains of large animals have been found in Alaska. Together with these remains were also found handcrafted stone implements, thus proving that humans were already co-existing with these creatures. Such mystical occurrences can only be explained by the huge displacement of the tectonic plates. Their positions have been displaced to one of much colder weather conditions.
The Great Flood could also be one of the reasons for the catastrophic changes. In the mythologies of many countries there are traditional records of the Great Flood. Of the more than 130 Native American nationalities, there is none that does not utilize a great catastrophe as the main theme in their traditional myths. According to information from the Xinhua News Agency on April 9, 1986, Turkey Official News Agency repeated that on top of Mount Ararat (5,200 meters above sea level), a vessel similar to that of “Noah's Ark” was found. Photographic records of the site were made. The bow of the vessel is shaped like an onion, the length being identical to that mentioned in the Holy Bible. Did the Great Flood cause the extinction of the previous human civilization? This question is worth contemplating.