PureInsight | February 11, 2002
2. Multi-dimensional space-time theory
In the second chapter of Zhuan Falun, “The Issue of the Celestial Eye”, the following appears: “In comparison with those lives of higher wisdom on the planets throughout the entire universe, our human race’s scientific level is quite low. We cannot even reach other dimensions that exist simultaneously in the same place, while flying saucers from other planets can travel directly in other dimensions.” In addition, “…the microscopic particles of matter include molecules, atoms, and protons. When investigating further, if you can see the plane of each level instead of a point, and see the plane of molecules, the plane of atoms, the plane of protons, and that of nuclei, you will see the forms of existence in different dimensions. All matter, including the human body, exists simultaneously in connection with dimensional levels of the cosmic space. When our modern physics studies the microscopic particles of matter, it only studies a microscopic particle through splitting it and fission. It will study its elements after nuclear fission. If there were such an instrument through which we could expand and see the level at which all atomic elements or molecular elements could manifest in their entirety, or if this scene were observed, you would reach beyond this dimension and see the real scenes existing in other dimensions. The human body corresponds to external dimensions, and they all have such forms of existence.”
The modern scientific community has begun to have similar understandings of space-time as the illustration in Zhuan Falun.
The development of human beings’ understanding of space-time can be divided into three phases.
In the first phase, Sir Isaac Newton believed that the universe was mechanical and regarded it as a precise machine that ran by following a rigid set of rules based on classical physics. For example, the earth rotates around the sun and galaxies are just like gears in a huge clock. This is a mechanical concept of time-space, which is a system with absolute time and absolute space. It completely isolates time and space.
The second phase was based on Einstein’s Theory of Relativity. Newton’s concept of absolute space-time was abandoned and the concept of relative space-time was established by combining time and space. In any inertial system, time is measured by a clock that has the same structure as the system and is relatively linked to the system. The Generalized Theory of Relativity abolished the concept of the inertial system and linked substances, movement and space-time together through the concept of winding space, which renounced the isolation of time and space. However, Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity can only describe the still and evenly distributed isolated time-space. It didn’t establish the physical concept of the dynamic space-time manifold of higher dimensions nor did it analyze the evolvement of space-time structures. In addition, newly observed data, like the precession of Mercury and the existence of sources of X-ray bursts challenged Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity.
By the time of the third phase, modern science had already learned that the space-time of the world we live in is very complicated and not just what we humans can see through our eyes. Based on this, people developed modern space-time theory.
2.1 Modern space-time theory and concepts of space-time in quantum physics
The main point of modern space-time theory is that the universe is composed of all kinds of space-time structures with different dimensionality. The essence of the space-time manifold of higher dimensions is a compound stream of energy. That is, the essence of space is an energy stream. For example, Super String Theory holds that real space-time is multi-dimensional, consisting of possibly 10 or even as many as 26 dimensions. Take 10 as an example. Quantum mechanics states that all particles have wave nature and the wavelength, l, is given by h/p, where p is momentum and h is Planck’s Constant. If the wavelength of particles is greatly larger than the size of the space, the dimension will be compressed. According to the Kaluza-Klein theory, in order to obtain the correct gravitational constant in the compressed 4-dimensional time-space, the size of the other 6 dimensions must be within the Planck scale lp (lp = h / (mp*c), where the denominator represents momentum). Thus, it can be seen that in order to detect the other six dimensions the momentum of the particle must be larger than (mp*c), which makes l < lp, i.e., the other six dimensions won’t be compressed. But the high amount of energy that would be needed to generate such great momentum exists only in the imagination and cannot be generated in a modern lab. People with supernormal capabilities can emit external qi, and according to experiments a lot of high-energy particles, including α (alpha),β (beta),γ (gamma), thermal neutrons and so on are detected in the external qi of qigong masters with powerful supernormal capabilities. Therefore, if the energy of the high-energy particles emitted by people with supernormal capabilities is high enough, it is possible that the other six dimensions can be detected. In a holographic universe, information on all things in a specific volume is demonstrated on its surface in a certain way. The latest research on Super String Theory indicates that the universe is like a holographic picture. For instance, Mardaseine’s model demonstrated that a 4-dimensional field could be a holographic projection of a 5-dimensional field, just as a laser hologram is a 3-dimensional object projected on to a 2-dimensional plane.
In the past decade modern cosmography brought forward many hypotheses concerning the generation of the universe, including the fusion of quantum physics and the Generalized Theory of Relativity, especially advances of symmetrical crash phase transition in normal field theory. The Big Bang Theory, the Sudden Swelling Theory and the Cosmic-String Theory are all important parts of these theories. For example, according to the Chaotic Sudden Swelling model of the universe put forward by A. Linde in 1983, there was a certain number of space domains in the universe in its early age. Each space domain swelled exponentially and mini universe bubbles with sizes beyond the observable universe were formed. Every bubble could evolve a corresponding universe. The universe we live in is one of them.
These universes connect to each other. According the Wormhole Theory put forward by Einstein in 1935, wormholes can distort space. They are tunnels in the universe that can make faraway places nearby. That is to say, different sub-universes can connect with each other through wormholes. However, inside the wormhole the gravity is so high that anything falling into it will be destroyed.
2.2 Multi-dimensional space-time theories
As discussed earlier, modern science has already learned of the existence of many dimensions, and a lot of various theories, such as those mentioned above, have been proposed. However, these theories still have a lot of problems. For instance, using Big Bang Theory, we cannot explain what the universe was like during 0 – 10-43 second of the Big Bang. Why didn’t the number of particles and the number of antiparticles match? Why was the ratio of photons to particles at the magnitude of
10-9? From observations after 1992, the so-called Big Bang Fireball discovered in 1964 was found to have temperature fluctuations, that is, its density fluctuated. This didn’t comply with the Big Bang Theory.
On January 9, 1997 the authoritative magazine, Nature, published an article regarding the distribution of stellar systems. The article pointed out that supernovae are arranged in a form of a crystalline lattice. Each rectangular cell has sides that are 360 million light-years long. According to Dr. J. Einasto of the Tartu Observatory in Estonia, the scattering of supernovae is like a three-dimensional chessboard. In February 1990, the astronomer J. Broadhurst of Durham University, UK, with a committee composed of scientists from many nations made vertical observations of a fairly limited region of space. The observed range was six billion light-years. They used a type of pencil beam scanning equipment and confirmed that supernovae were distributed periodically at 300 million light-year long intervals. Astronomers already knew that galaxies could form either disk-shaped or string-shaped supernovae. These supernovae spun around space with no galaxies. However, scientists did not anticipate the periodic structures at all. This observation raised questions about our current understanding of the universe. According to the Big Bang Theory, supernovae should scatter randomly across the universe. Dr. Marc Davis at the University of California, Berkeley stated that if the scattering of supernovae was actually periodic, we could certainly conclude that we know nothing about the form of existence of our universe in its early stages.
The Super String Theory also has some problems in this regard. For example, Quantum Chromo Dynamics (QCD), which was brought up by Super String Theory, is able to incorporate strong forces, weak forces and electro-magnetic forces into its theory, but not gravitational forces. Furthermore, are these four types of forces the only ones in the universe? The super-explosive force of gamma-ray bursts in this universe cannot be easily accounted for as a result of these four forces. The Super String Theory cannot give any explanation for this phenomenon. In addition, the concept of dimensions in the String Theory does not explain the physical essence of the evolution of the universe. It is impossible to verify the conclusions derived from this theory. Physicists would have to construct a particle-accelerator with a circumference of 1,000-light-years. The circumference of our solar system is only one-light-day. The Super String Theory has utilized mathematics in the realm of physics to the extreme, and is known as “The Dance of Mathematics.” It has turned the evolution of the universe into a mathematical game to the point of becoming meaningless regarding physics. Thus, it has become a work of aesthetics.
In short, today’s human beings still have to improve their understanding of the universe and their concept of space-time.
In “Teaching Fa on Lantau Island” in Zhuan Falun, Volume II, Master Li said “...the universe is most fundamentally made of energy.” He has revealed to us the essence of the universe and has helped us enlighten to the fact that we should analyse different levels of space-times in the universe from the standpoint of the essence of energy. In fact, the present theory of space-time has also come to realize that the essence of space is energy currents. Quantum mechanics tells us that under different conditions, microcosmic particles may manifest either wave or particle properties. This gives rise to the “dual wave-particle property” concept. At the sub-atomic level, however, the separation between the wave-state and the particle-state disappears. Matter cannot be explained by either type, as it is both a wave and a particle. Waves are a form of energy and do not display visible particle properties. However, we cannot say that they are not matter. At this point, the concept of matter begins to vary; that is to say, energy is also matter. Einstein's Theory of Relativity states that the relation between energy and matter is E=mc2. This tells us that the mass of matter is a form of the superficial characteristic of energy and therefore matter is energy. Matter and energy are unified and the dual wave-particle property is the evidence of such a unity. Since energy is the intrinsic property of matter, it is also the essence of the universe. Fundamentally speaking, the universe is composed of energy.
Modern science knows that matter is composed of molecules, atoms, nuclei, electrons, protons, neutrons, various mesons, hyperons, resonating particles, layer by layer until the neutrino. The interdependency of matter at different levels in this universe is based on energy. The smaller the particle, the higher its energy level. The evolution of the universe is actually the interactions, transfers and transformations between different energies at one level or between levels. Energies at different levels include the kinetic energy of colossal celestial bodies (galactic clusters, milky ways, fixed star systems), the mechanical energy of objects surrounding us, biological energy, the functional energy among molecules (thermal energy, chemical energy), the functional energy within atoms (nuclear energy), the energy in the space confined by quarks, the radiation energy of neutrinos, which can easily penetrate steel plates 1,000-light-years thick and more microscopic or macroscopic unknown energy states. The corresponding energetic magnitude of interactions among crystal and biological particles is of a few electron-volts. Organic and inorganic molecular interactions have a corresponding energy level of a few kilo electron-volts. Atomic nuclei have the corresponding energy of a few mega electron-volts. Protons and neutrons have corresponding energy levels of a few hundred mega electron-volts. Quarks and neutrinos have a corresponding energy level that present technology is unable to detect.
Present day science can only study the existence of sub-atomic particles at a single point. It is unable to capture the entire plane in which a microscopic particle exists. This is because probing into more microscopic particles requires higher energy levels. Presently, the highest energy level available in a laboratory is at the level of neutrinos. Not only does this energy level fall far short of enabling us to reach the true origin of matter, but also modern science can have no effect on particles more microscopic than neutrinos. At the microcosmic level, different planes and energy magnitudes of different particles inside substances constitute correspondingly different dimensions.
Present day science has already recognized Plank's Constant, h, which represents the demarcation line between macroscopic and microscopic physics. It is an example of the characteristics of different levels in different dimensions. All matter exists in numerous space-times that exist at the same time and location. Every dimension has its own time and space structure, which constitute the specific form enabling the existence of life. What we sense and are in contact with is fundamentally composed of the macroscopic substance of molecules. Our position is located within the space of molecules and celestial bodies. Actually, our modern science also recognizes that there exists a vast expanse of space between an electron and its corresponding nucleus. The present T-duality Theory connects these two types of particles, vibrating and circling particles formed by a string circling a confined dimension. The T-duality Theory postulates that the circling particles with a radius R and the vibrating particles with a radius of 1/R are equivalent and vice versa. In this way, if the universe shrinks to the size of Planck's length (10-35 meters), the universe will transform into a coupling universe. This coupling universe expands as the original shrinks. Because of this, in the extremely miniscule scale, the universe appears to be exactly the same as in a large scale.
Objects at various dimensions are universally connected. Changes in one dimension will induce changes in all other dimensions. The dimension detected and measured by humans is only the most superficial layer of space. Whatever occurs in this dimension may be superficial phenomena, external manifestations or projections in our dimension from countless universal dimensions. Their origins and essences are likely to be deeply concealed in different levels of microscopic dimensions.